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What’s New in Type? (1/3)

Updated: Feb 15

by Ray Moody, Mark Majors, and Mina Barimany  (Read the second article and the third article in this series) (Watch the YouTube video of the conference session)

Surprising new findings about Type

For decades we have been limited to identifying and describing the behaviors that result from four different functions or mental processes; the dominant, auxiliary, tertiary, and the inferior. With MajorsPTI we can now measure the accessibility or usage of all eight processes. We get to add four more to our usual list.

We call these additional processes complements, same functions, opposite attitude. Figure 1 presents for ENFJs with the new information we have. Our total sample size was 9,972. Our ENFJ group numbered 345. Ordered from most used, left, to least used, right, here is what the average looks like.

ENFJ usage of the 8 functions

Figure 1: ENFJ usage of the 8 functions

We converted the raw scores to T Scores so we can compare types. The mean is 50; the Standard Deviation is 10. Majors PTI scores for each process appears above the bars.

Just as Jung said the Primary or Dominant gets the most action, the Auxiliary is second, and the Inferior gets the least. Isabel Myers added a third, the Tertiary. It’s between the Auxiliary and the Inferior. The empirical evidence shows Jung and Myers got the order and the comparative usage exactly right.

Figure 1 also includes the four Complement processes distributed among the four Dynamic processes.

We had no guess about how much the Complements are used and no guess about the order in which they would be distributed. This is new information.

(Alert! Not all types distribute their processes, high to low, in this order. Types are different. We already knew that, didn’t we?)

Jung described the Complements as unconscious, fused, infantile, primitive, repressed, undifferentiated, undeveloped, compensatory, and “endowed with magical powers”. So, the Complement processes are fully functioning, just as the four Dynamic processes are fully functioning.

We have four points to make.

First, Figure 1 shows that some adjacent processes are nearly equal in usage. They differ by less than two or one tenth of one point. With good reason Jung described the “Inferior” processes (plural) as fused, undifferentiated, and undeveloped. If we try to differentiate the processes according to differences in usage, there isn’t any difference we can observe. They look identical in usage. Jung pointed this out:

“…there is a constant influx of unconscious contents into the conscious psychological process, to such a degree that at times it is hard for the observer to decide which character traits belong to the conscious and which to the unconscious personality. ” (576) (Psychological Types, par 576)

Second, we don’t consider the Complements as “undeveloped.” A difference in usage, or no difference, does not mean “undeveloped.” It means a difference in usage. In the conference, we will provide a live demonstration.

Third, with your trusty smart phone calculator, add up the scores for the four Dynamic processes (Figure 1) and write down this sum. Then add up the scores for the four Complements and write down that sum.

What’s the difference?

We use our Complements just as much as we use our Dynamics.

“From the activity of the unconscious there now emerges a new content, constellated by thesis and antithesis in equal measure and standing in a compensatory (q.v.) relation to both.” (Ibid, 825)

Fourth, for decades, in our type presentations, we have neglected half of the type system. Figure 2 shows what we have been presenting.

ENFJ as normally represented

Figure 1: ENFJ as normally represented

Figure 2 – ENFJ as normally represented

The holes are obvious. For the average ENFJ, Ne, the Auxiliary Complement, gets more action than six other processes. Not important? Not worth mentioning? The Dominant Complement and the Inferior Complement are in the middle of the pack. Not worth mentioning? Am I just half a person? Are you just half a person? Is each of your clients only half?

Suppose you are feeling bad. You decide to go to a medical doctor to get checked out. The doc points out that they only deal with the right side of the body. The left half doesn’t matter. Just ignore it. The blood work, with a list of measurements, comes back and the doc, with scissors, cuts off the bottom half and drops it in the waste basket. Doesn’t matter, Not important. Just ignore it. How do you know if you don’t look at all the information? Are you going to go back to this doctor? Your choice. When you are playing cards, Bridge or Poker, do you use only half a deck?

Jung pointed out, repeatedly, that we use all eight processes and characterized them in various ways. Some were archaic, infantile, fused, primitive, repressed, unconscious, undeveloped, undifferentiated. Now we can measure them, all eight. If we can measure them, none is undifferentiated.

Our empirical evidence and practical experience shows that none is undeveloped. The only word from the list above we find applicable is “unconscious.” Unconscious does not mean not functioning. It means out attention. As Jung pointed out, the system runs on “automatic” (612, 687, 688, 765, 784, 807, 898, 902). In our view, all eight processes are fully engaged at all times, running on automatic.

With these new measurements we can now show our clients how the complete, eight process, psychological type system works.

(Read the second article and the third article in this series)

About the authors

  1. Ray Moody (INTJ) works with Mark Majors and collaborates with a variety of colleagues including Mina Barimany in organizing type and culture research. This ongoing research on the measurement of Jung’s eight mental processes has been presented at various APTi conferences. Lifetime Achievement Award from APTi, 2017.

  2. Mark Majors (ENFP) Dr Mark S. Majors is a counselling psychologist with extensive psychometric credentials. He is the author and developer of the MajorsPTI and Majors PT-Elements. He has developed and presents leadership training seminars that train leaders to serve others by using personality and individual differences to facilitate optimum performance.

  3. Mina Barimany (INTJ) is a psychotherapist, counselor educator, and researcher from Washington, DC. Originally trained as a family therapist, she completed a doctorate in counselor education from George Washington University, where she is the Assistant Training Director of the counseling center and researches the development and application of Psychological Type theory.


Jung described the Complements as unconscious (Psychological Types, pars. 558, 560, 562, 566, 568, 569, 570, 571, 572-577, 588-591, 593, 599-603, 605, 608-611, 615-616, 623-627, 629-631, 634, 636-639, 640-643, 647-648, 651-660, 663-664, 667-671 683-684, 687, 689, 694-695, 700-702, 704-706, 709, 711-715, 717, 719, 724, 738-739, 741-743, 745-746, 751, 764-765, 767, 770-771, 773, 788-790, 795, 797, 799, 801-813, 819-821, 824-825, 837-844, 851, 853, 872, 899, 902-907, 909-910, 923, 930, 939-940, 951, 954-955, 793, 981, 985), archaic (571, 591, 605, 627, 629, 643, 652-654, 663, 671, 684, 764, 600, 605, 705, 764, 806, 824, 906, 907), fused (684, 705, 751, 773, 796, 907), infantile (571-573, 576, 600, 602, 605, 615, 627, 772, 955), primitive (576, 602-603, 615, 627, 630, 637, 639, 663, 697, 772, 794, 953, 955), repressed (570, 587, 588, 590, 591, 593, 600, 602-605, 608, 611, 615, 639, 654, 662-663, 670, 694, 764, 726, 764, 796, 905, 907), undifferentiated (602, 705, 763, 796), undeveloped (588, 667, 796, 907-908, 955), compensatory (565-566, 568-569, 572, 574-575, 583, 599-600, 608, 613, 626, 630, 634, 643, 654, 663, 688-689, 693-695, 702, 714-715, 772, 795, 825, 843, 902, 904, 910, 940); and also “endowed with magical powers” (627, 630, 639, 869).

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